A particular uncertainty in the case of the Kihansi spray toad, an amphibian species now extinct in the wild, is relative importance of multiple stressors occurring simultaneously, that is, pesticide exposure, disruptions of food supply and infection with pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. An understanding of toxicity levels due to direct exposure of Kihansi spray toads to endosulfan as well as interactions among endosulfan exposure, starvation and disease in toad fitnesswould enhance capacity for post-hoc interpretation of the potential role of this compound in previous population declines as well as inform whether limiting exposure to this compound should be a consideration in the reintroduction planning.
Evaluation of Toxicity of Endosulfan for Kihansi Spray Toads: Direct Exposure Effects and Interactions with Nutritional Status and Infection by Pathogenic Chytrid Fungus.
This research involves captive Kihansi spray toads drawn from the surplus animals currently being produced in zoos in the United States to better understand the interactions between fitness of Kihansi spray toad and endosulfan exposure, nutritional status and disease.
Location: Syracuse, New York (laboratory site) and Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania (field site)
Brooke Reeve and Chelsae Radell
James P. Gibbs, Tsutomu Nakatsugawa, Jesse Brunner, SUNY-ESF, Syracuse, New York, USA
Lower Kihansi Environmental Management Project, National Environment Management Council
James P. Gibbs, SUNY-ESF, Syracuse, NY 13210 USA, email@example.com, 315/470-6764